Binocular repairs, Telescopes repairs, Ophthalmic instrument repairs, Instrument repairs, Optical repairs, Focimeter repairs, Ophthalmoscope repairs, Retinoscope repairs, Refractor repairs, Phoroptor repairs, Practice servicing

German 3-letter codes for manufacturers of military binoculars, telescopic sights, cameras and optical instruments of all types during World War Two

During WWII, German industry was extensively and successfully dispersed to lessen the effects of Allied bombing on its output. The principal manufacturers of binoculars, such as Zeiss, Leitz, Hensoldt, Goerz, Busch and Voigtländer were often spread over various locations and many other companies were brought in to manufacture optical equipment for the military of the Third Reich. Such companies included some located outside of Germany, in occupied countries, such as France, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Holland. Austria and Italy also manufactured for the Reich. Often these companies were making equipment designed by the bigger firms such as Zeiss and Leitz. The equipment manufactured by this extensive network was, until near the end of the war, of the very highest quality and, from 1940, its origin was intended to be obscured from the enemy by the use of government-issued, three-letter codes. The following list of these codes is extensive but not exhaustive, one reason for this being that some further dispersal was undertaken as the war progressed.

beh Ernst Leitz GmbH, Wetzlar
bek Hensoldt Werk für Optik und Mechanik, Herborn
blc Carl Zeiss, Jena
bmh K. Jirasek Fabrik für Feinmechanik und Optik, Prague
bmj Hensoldt und Sohne Optische Werke A.G., Wetzlar
bmk Srb & Stys Fabrik Praziser Messinstrumente, Prague
bmt C.P.Goerz GmbH, Vienna
bvf C.Reichert Optische, Vienna
bvu Franz Kuhlmann, Wilhelmshaven
bwt G. Heyde K.G., Dresden
byg Jon Wyksen K.G., Katowitz, Poland
bzz J.G.Farbindustrie A.G. Camerawerk, Munich
cad Karl Kahles Optiker, Vienna
cag Swarovski Optik, Absam, Austria
cau Kodak A.G., Stuttgart
ccx Hugo Meyer & Co., Gorlitz
clb Dr. F.A.Wohler, Kassel
clk F.W.Breithaupt & Sohne, Kassel
cll August Baumgart, Rathenow
clm Biedermann & Czarnikow, Berlin
cln E.Sprenger Optische, Berlin
cmc G. Wichmann, Berlin
cmd G.Wichmann, Berlin
cme G.Wichmann, Berlin
crg W.Lambrecht, Göttingen
crh F.Schmidt & Haensch, Steglitz
crj Otto Fennel Sohne K.G., Kassel
crn Friedrichs & Co., Hamburg
cro R.Fuess, Berlin
ctn Friedrichs & Co., Hamburg
cwu Georg von Kremp, Wetzlar
cxc Dr. Paul Mozar, Dusseldorf
cxn Emil Busch A.G., Rathenow
czn Emil Busch A.G., Rathenow
ddv Oculus, Berlin
ddx Voigtländer & Sohne A.G., Brunswick
dho Nordmark GmbH, Prerau, Czechoslovakia
dkl Jos. Schneider & Co., Kreuznach
doq Deutsche Spielgelglas A.G., Leine
dow Opticotechnal GmbH., Brerau, Czechoslovakia
dpg Adox Kamerawerk GmbH., Wiesbaden
dpv Zeiss Ikon A.G., Dresden
dpw Zeiss Ikon A.G., Berlin
dpx Zeiss Ikon A.G., Stuttgart
dvh Berliner Physikalische, Berlin
dxt Kadlec-Instrumente-Fabrik, Prague
dyn Runge & Kaulfuss, Rathenow
dys Heinrich Zeiss, Berlin
dzl Optische Anstalt Oigee, Berlin
eaf Aude & Reipert Optische, Babelsberg
eaw R.Winkel GmbH., Göttingen
eed Kurbi & Niggeloh, Radevorma
emq Carl Zeiss, Jena
emv Hertel & Reuss, Kassel
eoc A. Ott, Kempten
eos W. Feiler Feinmechanik GmbH., Berlin
eot Fichter & Hackenjos K.G., Villengen
eso Optische Werke G.Rodenstock, Munich
esu Steinheil Sohne GmbH., Munich
eug Optische Prazisions-Werke GmbH., Warsaw
fco Sendlinger Optische Glaswerke GmbH., Zehlendorf
fjt Photogrammetrie GmbH., Berlin
fll Feinapparate-Bau, Gablonz
flm Feinapparate-Bau, Thurn
fln Franz Rapsch Optische Fabriken A.G., Rathenow
fvs Spindler & Hoyer, Göttingen
fvx C. Bech & Sohne, Kassel
fwq Saalfelder Apparatebau GmbH., Berlin
fwr Optische Anstalt Saalfeld GmbH., Saalfeld
fzg Feinmechanik GmbH., Kassel
fzp Hans Kollmorgan GmbH, Berlin
gag F. Mollenkopf Optische Industrieanstalt, Stuttgart
gcg H. Maihak A.G., Hamburg
ghd Carl Kneusel, Zeulenroda
ghp Rufs & Co., Kassel
gpa Groos & Graf, Berlin
gpr Berchtold, Tuttlingen
gug Ungarische Optische Werke A.G., Budapest
guj Werner D. Kuen Optische Industrie, Berlin
gwr Dennert & Pape, Hamburg
gwv Ernst Plank, Nuremberg
gxh Nitsche & Günther Optische Werke K.G., Rathenow
gxl Franke & Heidecke, Brunswick
hap Max Kohl A.G., Chemnitz
hdv Optische Werke Osterode GmbH., Harz
hfo Valentin Linhof, Munich
hkm Carl Braun K.G., Nuremberg
hna Korelle Werke Brandtmann & Co., Dresden
hrw Hohn & Hahne, Leipzig
hwt Ihagee Kamerawerk Steenbergen & Co., Dresden
hxh A. Kruss Optishe-Mechan, Hamburg
jfn Tetanal Photowerk, Berlin
jfp Dr. Karl Leiss, Steglitz
jfu Wilhelm Lehmann & Co. K.G., Hamburg
jfv Wilhelm Lehmann & Co. K.G., Magdeburg
jkk L. Castagna & Sohn, Vienna
jnh Hensoldt & Sohne
jon Voigtländer-Gavaert, Berlin
jux Nedinson, Nederlandsche Instrumenten, Venlo
jve Ernst Ludwig Optisches Werk, Weixdorf
jxn Helmut Korth, Berlin
kgc Nahmachinenfabrik A.G., Sobeslav, Bohemia
khc Otto Himmler, Berlin
kln Ernst & Wilhelm Bertram, Munich
kna Berning & Co. K.G., Dusseldorf
kqc Jos Schneider & Co. Optische Werke K.G., Göttingen
krg Emil Busch A.G., Budapest
krq Emil Busch A.G., Rathenow
kwe Gamma, Budapest
kxv A. Jackenroll Optische Anstalt GmbH., Berlin
lae Heinrich Zeiss, Gastingen
lfn C. Richter, Tharandt
lmq Carl Zeiss, Jena
lwg Optische Werke Osterode GmbH., Harz
lww Huet & Cie, Paris
lwx Optique et Precision de Levallois (OPL), Paris
lwy Societe d’Optique et Mechanique de Haute Precision (SOM), Paris
mav H. Mailak A.G., Hamburg
mbv I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G., Berlin
mca Dr. C.Schleussner Fotowerke GmbH., Frankfurt
mgf August Fischer, Göttingen
mjc Feinmechanische Werkstaetten Warsitz, Amsterdam
mny Gerhard Hoffmann, Berlin
mnz Erich Holz, Berlin
mtq Roland Risse GmbH., Florsheim
mtr Voigtländer & Sohn A.G., Berlin
mtu A. Lorenz, Dresden
mtv A. Lorenz, Dresden
mtw A. Lorenz, Dresden
nac Feinmechanische Zentrale Overbeck, Herborn
ndv Feinmechanische Werke Neumuhlen GmbH., Kiel
nek O. Perlitz Prazisionmechanik und Apparatebau, Berlin
nmh De Pleskot & Co., Prague
nms Richard Holz, Berlin
npx Ludwig Rossler, Munich
nuj Schäper & Uebel, Dresden
nxt S.A.I. Ottico Mechanica e Rilevamenti Aerofotogrammetrici, Rome
ocp Aktophot GmbH., Prague
ocv W. Klazer, Prague
okc Hauff A.G., Stuttgart
pvf C. Reichert, Vienna
rln Carl Zeiss, Jena



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Binocular repairs, Telescopes repairs, Ophthalmic instrument repairs, Instrument repairs, Optical repairs, Focimeter repairs, Ophthalmoscope repairs, Retinoscope repairs, Refractor repairs, Phoroptor repairs, Practice servicing